Sunday, March 30, 2008

Timeline



300 BC Antioch founded by Seleucus in May as capital of the Seleucid Kingdom.
300-64 BC Seleucid rule. Temple of Athena and Temple of Ares probably built in this period.
246-44 BC Brief occupation by Egyptians
188 BC Seleucid empire pays tribute to Rome after military defeat
175-64 BC Antiochus IV Epiphanes expands and beautifies the city. Charonion carved.
166 BC Introduction of gladiatorial games
96-83 BC Political instability: six kings in 12 years
83-69 BC Antioch occupied by Tigranes II of Armenia
64 BC Annexed by Romans under Pompey; becomes capital of province of Syria
47 BC Julius Caesar visits Antioch, builds a Kaisarion basilica, amphitheater and theater
40-39 BC Occupation of Antioch by the Parthians
37-36 BC Antony and Cleopatra may have wed in Antioch
31 BC -14 AD Public buildings of Augustus and Tiberius, including the colonnade
41-54 Foundation of the Olympic Games at Antioch under Claudius
66/67 Outbreak of violence against Antiochene Jews
70-80 Theater built at Daphne with spoils of Jewish wars
115 AD Earthquake; Trajan escapes to Hippodrome
117-38 Hadrian improves water supply system
161-65 Co-emperor Lucius Verus resides at Daphne
192 Antiochenes and Pescennius Niger, governor of Syria, challenge imperial authority of Septimus Severus; city is punished and Olympic Games suspended
212 Caracalla returns imperial favors to city and restores Olympic Games
215-17 Caracalla and his mother, Julia Domna, rule from Antioch.
235-60 Antioch captured by Sapor I
266-72 Antioch ruled by Queen Zenobia of Palmyra
272 Aurelian defeats Zenobia and recaptures Antioch
284-305 Public buildings and economic revival under Diocletian
314 Birth of Libanius
336 Libanius leaves for Athens to complete his education.
337-61 Reign of Constantius II.
338 Constantius is in Antioch as emperor of the East; Antioch is used as headquarters in the war against Persia
340 Libanius opens his own school of literature and oratory in Constantinople; has immediate success.
341 Great Church of Antioch completed
346 Libanius transfers his school to Nicomedia due to jealousy of rivals in Constantinople
344/7-407 Life of John Chrysostom
354 Libanius returns to Antioch; stayed for the rest of his life (d. 393). Among his pupils were John Chrysostom, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nazianzen.
356 or 360 Libanius delivers the Antiochikos (Oration XI) for the local Olympic Games
Nov 3, 361 Constantius dies
361-63 Reign of Julian; efforts at revival of paganism
Winter 361-62 Drought and resulting shortage of wheat in Antioch
July 362 Julian arrived in Antioch. At once began to visit temples and shrines on proper occasions, especially temples of Zeus, Zeus Philios, Tyche, Demeter, Hermes, Pan, Ares, Calliope and Apollo, sacrificed under the trees in the palace garden, and ascended Mt. Casius to sacrifice to Zeus (Julian, Misopogon, 346b-d; Libanius, Or. 1.121f; 15.79; Amm. Marc. 22.14.4). Festival of Adonis sufficiently alive at this time for him to be met by wailing women on 18 July.
Oct 22, 362 Temple of Apollo in Antioch catches fire; roof and statue of Apollo are burned. Julian suspects Christians; the Great Church is closed and liturgical vessels given by Constantine and Constantius are confiscated. (Theophanes, Chronicle, p. 50, 14ff, ed. De Boor; Theodoret, Hist. eccl., 3.12.4; Philostorgius, HE 7.20; Sozomen HE 5.8 9 (last two seem exaggerated, according to Downey, 170).
Feb 363 Julian posts his Misopogon outside palace in Antioch
March 5, 363 Julian left Antioch for Persia; said he would not return but go to Tarsus after the campaign; dies in battle.
363-64 Reign of Jovian (just 9 months), who was a Christian but tolerated pagans
364-78 Reign of Valens in East, headquartered at Antioch (brother Valentinian I ruled the West). Constructed Forum of Valens at Antioch. Still an official policy of religious tolerance, but Valens made magic a capital offense.
382 Anti-pagan legislation under Theodosius (CTh 16.10.8)
c.383 Monks destroyed pagan temples in Antioch. Libanius suggests only four of the great temples remained now. (Zeus, Athena, Dionysus, Fortuna) (For the Temples, Orat. 30.51) Temple of Justice/Nemesis in stadium at Daphne had been destroyed by 387 (Or. 29.7) Sanctuaries on hills around Antioch still intact by 388 (Or. 56.22)
384 or 386 Libanius writes to Theodosius For the Temples (Oration 30)
387 Riot of the Statues in Antioch
June/July 391 Overthrow of the Serapeum by Theophilus and his monks (Sozomon HE 7.14)
392 Theodosius forbids pagan cults (CTh 16.10.12)
393 Death of Libanius
399 Theodosius rules destruction of temples (16.14.16)
408 Theodosius orders destruction of altars and confiscation of buildings (16.10.19)
458 Great earthquake under Leo I
484 Pretender emperor Leontius reigns from Antioch; ousted by Zeno
507 Circus riots; the synagogue at Daphne is burned
525-26 Fire and earthquake in Antioch
Nov 29, 528 Great earthquake in Antioch. City is renamed Theopolis, “City of God.”
540 Antioch captured and sacked by the Persians
542 Bubonic plague epidemic in Antioch
540-65 Major rebuilding effort under Justinian, focusing on defenses and infrastructure
588 Octagonal Great Church was destroyed by an earthquake (Late Antiquity, 304)
611-28 Antioch occupied by Persians
638 Antioch captured by Arab caliphate. Was made a city secondary to a military district.
969 Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas recaptures Antioch
1084 Antioch taken by Seljuk Turks
June 3, 1098 Antioch captured by Crusaders under Bohemond
1098-1268 Frankish principality of Antioch
1268 Antioch captured by Mamlukes under Bibars
1517 Ottoman Turks capture Antioch
1920 French Mandate over Syria established
1932-39 Princeton-led archaeological excavations of Antioch
July 22
1938
Elections for the new Republic of Hatay
June 29
1939
Turkey annexes Republic of Hatay

1 comment:

Terry said...

What a wealth of information!
Clearly a great passion.
I am very grateful for all your efforts. It has opened up this city for me. You may have referred to this and I missed it. Antioch gets a mention in the New Testament. The creation of a church there had a huge impact on Christianity. "The disciples were called Christians first at Antioch" Acts 11:26 Paul the Apostle used Antioch as his base of operations for his missionary activities throughout the Mediterranean. Thanks again. Terry